Tests and Diagnostic Techniques
Hormonal Profiles for Men and Women
Testosterone is an important metabolic hormone for both men and women. Take the testosterone checklist to see if your testosterone levels should be assessed:
- Do you have a decrease in libido (sex drive)?
- Do you have a lack of energy?
- Do you have a decrease in strength or endurance?
- Have you lost height?
- Have you noticed a decreased “enjoyment of life?”
- Are you sad or grumpy?
- Are your erections less strong?
- Have you noted a recent deterioration in your ability to play sports?
- Do you fall asleep after dinner?
- Has there been a recent deterioration in your work performance?
For women, progesterone, testosterone and ß-estradiol are measured by collecting 11 saliva samples over 28 days. This profile provides direction for successful treatment of women with menstrual irregularities, difficulties with ovulation, functional infertility, pre-menstrual syndrome, menopause, osteoporosis, and other hormone-related disorders
What are estrogens and progestins?
Three steroid hormones - estrone (E1), ß-estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)—are known collectively by their function as estrogens. Estradiol is the most physiologically active estrogen in non-pregnant women. Its potency is 12 times that of estrone and 80 times that of estriol. In non-pregnant women, estrogens are mainly produced in the ovaries and adrenal. In pregnant women, estrogens are also produced in the placenta. ß-estradiol is produced in the ovaries; estrone is synthesized in the ovaries and adrenal cortex from ß-estradiol and androstenedione; and estriol is formed in the liver by conversion of either ß-estradiol or estrone.
Progestins are comprised of progesterone and 17-a hydroxyprogesterone. They exhibit similar potency. Because 17-a hydroxyprogesterone is produced in minute quantities compared to progesterone, the latter is considered the most significant progestin. As is the case with estrogen, progesterone is produced in the ovaries and adrenal cortex in non-pregnant women, while in pregnant women it is also secreted in the placenta. Both progesterone and estradiol are formed from cholesterol by enzymes of the steroid forming pathways. In the luteal phase progesterone levels increase dramatically, in spite of a portion of available steroids still being converted to estrogens. Conversion of ß-estradiol to the less potent estrone or estriol diminishes circulating ß-estradiol, and further functional degradation occurs as formation of glucuronides and sulfates in the liver takes place. Similarly, progesterone is functionally degraded to less potent steroids in the liver.
Several researchers have confirmed that a study of estrogen / progesterone cycles aids in diagnosing anovulatory cycles and corpus luteum dysfunction. Anovulation is a common problem in women with infertility.